1. Modelling and Prototyping
2. Textual Studies
3. Interface Design


In addition to publications that situate INKE’s work within diverse knowledge communities, each group encodes their theories of the text in tools and prototypes for wider scholarly use.  This page features some of the tools and prototypes that have been created by the three INKE teams: Modelling and Prototyping, Textual Studies, and Interface Design.

Modelling and Prototyping

A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript (Launch)

The Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript is a Wikibook edition of the sixteenth century courtly verse miscellany, the Devonshire Manuscript. The intention, in developing a digital edition in a platform like Wikibooks, was to incite scholarly contributions and practices from academic and non-academic sources alike. The public, social medium of the project also reflects the sixteenth century manuscript itself, as it passed through various hands and was circulated amongst a coterie of interested individuals.

The Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript includes a large amount of content for readers to engage with or overlook, as desired. Besides the 192 individual entries and accompanying facsimile images of the Devonshire Manuscript, the project includes a comprehensive textual apparatus with biographies, search function, genealogical charts, witness descriptions, XML encoded poems, detailed paleographic hand lists, and a lengthy bibliography. The Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript is open for discussion, contribution, and amendments by anyone who chooses to participate. In this way, scholarship extends past the traditional auspices of the academy and encourages cross-community collaboration in a distinctly digital context.

Related resources

NewRadial (Launch)

New Radial reflects on the possibilities of the dynamic, social digital edition in light of the affordances of digital networks for distributed communities of scholars. As a site for generating social editions, the prototype focuses on issues of transparent processes, interoperability, multimodality, modularity, scalability, sustainability, and curatability. Initially, NewRadial was conceived to encourage users to comment on and participate with image-based databases and the art of William Blake. Recently, the prototype has been significantly expanded to facilitate the study and development of various texts and editions. In going forward, New Radial is being adapted for use with text-based databases, and will be used in the future to centralize and facilitate scholarly discussions around monograph works and journal-based academic articles.

NewRadial is a multi-functional space where databases can be correlated and stored into specific edition environments that support annotations and associations between individual objects or object groups. Ideally, these edition environments would be utilized and developed as sites of productive, scholarly, editorial work by communities of scholars. From a technical standpoint, NewRadial has a server back-end and HTML5 front-end. NewRadial also features uniquely defined users, a space for commentary and discussion related to user-created edges and groups, and a robust search capacity to sort through large data sets. These useful features allow for various modes of interaction. Perceived uses for the prototype include: simple search, sorting, and manipulation of database objects in a visual field for research and scholarly inquiry; initial, raw, and in-process commentary on connections and associations between database objects; and constructing larger edition projects wherein a community is able to centralize, sort, and browse specific selections from a larger database. Of note, NewRadial is an open source application and can be customized for different content.

Related resources

Textual Studies

ArchBook (Launch)

ArchBook represents a new form of scholarship and scholarly communication that more readily reflects networked environments for studying book history. The title, ArchBook, derives from “Architectures of the Book,” and is meant to reflect an overarching material and bibliographical research interest. ArchBook comprises an evolving collection of illustrated essays concerning design features in the history of the book. The project also includes a comprehensive bibliography, glossary, project blog, and open access image database.

As a collection of illustrated essays, ArchBook provides a space of intense scholarship on book design features. As an online venue for knowledge creation, ArchBook invites participation through open access and post-publication discussion sections on every entry. In a semi-encyclopedic fashion, each entry follows a general trajectory of definition, rationale, historical overview, and possibilities for digital reinvention. ArchBook aims to serve as a reference resource as well as a provocation for further meditation and interaction with book history and book futures. Notably, ArchBook is now accepting submissions to add to the collection.

Related resources

Interface Design

Workflow for Journal Editors (Launch) and Workflow for Document Production (Orlando data) (Launch)

The Workflow for Journal Editors is an innovative tool for journal editors addressing the burgeoning field of interface design and project management for digital humanities endeavours. This prototype is a flash-based application that expresses the typical workflow for editorial process management via an interface. As a visualization, the Workflow for Journal Editors flexibly, clearly, and accessibly lays out a productive and interoperable approach for editorial workflow. The prototype builds on previous work regarding structured surfaces that can provide extra layers of meaning to graphs and other representations of data.

This prototype of a visual workflow for editorial processes was developed in Flash/Air (AS3) and currently exists in three instantiations: Desktop/Air, Desktop/Web and iPad. The latest version, the edition for Desktop/Air, will ideally be used in multitouch surfaces, and work is currently being done on a gesture-driven version for iPad and larger surfaces. The Workflow for Document Production is an implementation of the Workflow for Journal Editors prototype using data from the Orlando project.

Related resources

Paper Drill (Launch)

Paper Drill attempts to ameliorate professional reading practices by identifying and assembling citation chains throughout collections of secondary scholarship. Citation chaining is the scholarly activity of finding relevant resources via the reference list of an article. As this activity has become a common academic research practice, Paper Drill aims to automate and facilitate the effective development of citation chains.

As with other similar tools, to use Paper Drill one must submit a seed article. Paper Drill differs from other tools in the field, however, by generating a report for the user that details both the article cited in the seed article as well as all of the articles that cite the seed article. In this way, Paper Drill enables both forward and backward citation chaining practices.

Related resources

Dynamic Table of Contexts (Launch)

The Dynamic Table of Contexts reflects on new digital allowances for developing digital texts and performing professional reading activities. Instead of porting a conventional table of contents into digital texts wholesale and unmediated, the Dynamic Table of Contexts draws focus to the different opportunities raised by doing humanities work in computational environments. As an interface, the Dynamic Table of Contexts provokes these readerly explorations and encourages a type of participation with a text that might not be available (or initially obvious) in more traditional, print-based forms.

As an application, the Dynamic Table of Contexts will ideally be used to facilitate the browsing and parsing of a document. In the Dynamic Table of Contexts a traditional table of contents is supplemented with tools that allow for the manipulation of index items (via XML markup). Items can be added or subtracted, as the user sees fit. Moreover, all lines of the index are linked to the appropriate places in the document as a whole.

Related resources

  • http://www.ualbertaprojects.info/dyntoc/dyntoc_v3_5/Main.html
  • Blandford, Ann, Susan Brown, Teresa Dobson, Sarah Faisal, Carlos Fiorentino, Luciano Frizzera, Alejandro Giacometti, Brooke Heller, Mihaela Ilovan, Piotr Michura, Brent Nelson, Milena Radzikowska, Geoffrey Rockwell, Stan Ruecker, Stéfan Sinclair, Daniel Sondheim, Claire Warwick, and Jennifer Windsor. “Designing Interactive Reading Environments for the Online Scholarly Edition.” Abstracts of Digital Humanities 2012, Hamburg, 16-22 July 2012. Ed. Jan Cristoph Meister. Hamburg: U of Hamburg P., 2012. 35-40.
  • Ruecker, Stan, Susan Brown, Milena Radzikowska, Stefan Sinclair, Thomas M. Nelson, Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy, Sharon Balasz, and Jeff Antoniuk. “The Table of Contexts: A Dynamic Browsing Tool for Digitally Encoded Texts.” The Charm of a List: From the Sumerians to Computerised Data Processing. Ed. L. Dolezalova. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. 177-87.

Bubblelines (Launch)

Bubblelines is a visualization tool for textual analysis practices. Bubblelines visually represents word instances, repetitions, and frequencies, thus allowing users to compare search results across multiple texts. It depends on a basic visual literacy assumption—the larger the bubble, the more frequent the term. Quantity is depicted as quantity.

Notably, Bubblelines is now integrated with the popular Voyant tool for textual analysis. As such, Bubblelines includes all of Voyant’s standard interface elements: skin title, skin export, skin help, tool options, tool help, and tool export. Beyond mere visual representation, a user may also hover over a bubble or frequency node and see a list of frequency counts for the word(s) in question. A user may also add or remove terms as they see fit.

Related resources

CiteLens (Launch)

CiteLens participates in the conversation regarding the affordances of long form digital scholarship. As visual and digital literacies improve, so do the opportunities for alternative approaches to representing scholarly information. CiteLens is a visualization tool for analyzing citation patterns in lengthy scholarly works like monographs or editions. Primarily, CiteLens is designed as an instrument for context analysis of citation. This type of citation analysis focuses on analyzing citations inside the citing text. The secondary purpose of the tool is as a reading aid to facilitate the understanding of and integration with text of complex critical apparati; for example, attempting to make monographs more user-friendly for undergraduate science students taking required humanities classes. This tool uses XML markup to highlight three levels of information: the relationship between citations and the citing text; the connection between citations included in the same footnote; and standard bibliographical information.

Related resources

  • http://labs.fluxo.art.br/CiteLens/
  • Blandford, Ann, Susan Brown, Teresa Dobson, Sarah Faisal, Carlos Fiorentino, Luciano Frizzera, Alejandro Giacometti, Brooke Heller, Mihaela Ilovan, Piotr Michura, Brent Nelson, Milena Radzikowska, Geoffrey Rockwell, Stan Ruecker, Stéfan Sinclair, Daniel Sondheim, Claire Warwick, and Jennifer Windsor. “Designing Interactive Reading Environments for the Online Scholarly Edition.” Abstracts of Digital Humanities 2012, Hamburg, 16-22 July 2012. Ed. Jan Cristoph Meister. Hamburg: U of Hamburg P., 2012. 35-40.

Further reading

  • Hauptman, Robert. Documentation: a History and Critique of Attribution, Commentary, Glosses, Marginalia, Notes, Bibliographies, Works-cited Lists, and Citation Indexing and Analysis. Jefferson N.C.: McFarland, 2008.
  • Hellqvist, Bjorn. “Referencing in the Humanities and Its Implications for Citation Analysis.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (2009): 310–18.
  • Latour, Bruno. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge [u.a.]: Harvard Univ. Press, 1987. Print.

TextTiles Browser (Launch)

The TextTiles browser engages the conversations surrounding rich-prospect browsing and the presentation of large-scale digital collections. TextTiles is an attempt to facilitate research by providing users with display manipulation capacities. Primarily, TextTiles attends to the concept of rich prospect browsing—a more user-controlled type of browsing that promotes a persistent, manipulable, organizable display of items in a collection. The TextTiles browser is a prototype of this sort of rich-prospect browser. TextTiles is primarily concerned with collections that consist of textual information. Each document corresponds with a small tile in the system, and this tile contains a list of relevant bibliographic elements. Users can, of course, manipulate and control the tiles as desirable.

Related resources

dialR (Launch)

As an application, dialR allows users to study repetition in texts using n-grams. dialR engages with many interface design questions pertinent to humanities work, especially concerning issues of affordances, information overload, research, and interaction. Essentially, dialR is a text analysis tool geared toward recognizing repetition in a text or a group of texts. The browsing tools consist of a series of radar screens, where the user can watch the system scanning through a document while it highlights the results in a set of transparent sheets that provide the document overview. The document interface encourages readers to select a variety of features, presupposing an ability to identify automatically appropriate n-grams. Intentionally, the user experience of dialR mimics a “text visualization lab,” where the text appears as a volume of space and the goal is experimentation.

Related resources

MtV (Multitouch Variorum)

The MtV or Multitouch Variorum project is geared, primarily, toward navigating scholarly digital editions. Simply put, MtV is a prototype tool for interaction with text on multitouch surfaces. More specifically, this prototype is an experiment with alternatives to the standard mouse, keyboard, and monitor hardware platform. The technology for such interactions already exists, as the size of a multi-touch table allows for the display of multiple documents side-by-side. As well, the touch screen enables easy and intuitive operation, thus lessening the mental workload required to operate it and permitting user to focus more on the content. The system accommodates familiar gestures such as touch, pinch, and flick to let the user move, select, grab, and scroll through information on the screen. Collaborative work is facilitated through this technology, as more than one point of interaction is possible and multiple people are able to work on the material at the same time. Of note, MtV is still in an early stage and is being developed in Adobe Air using Open Exhibits multitouch library.

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